Name of West Sumatra Traditional House

In ancient times, each Rumah Gadang complex had two to six rangkiang that functioned as a rice storage area for the family or people who inhabited the Gadang House.




At Rumah Gadang Kaum usually has a surau which is used as a place to recite the Koran and study religion.


There are at least three characteristics of education applied in the surau, namely religious education, custom, and silat or self-defense.


From the type, Rumah Gadang can be divided into two. Namely the Atok Bagonjong Gadang House which is identical to the roof resembling a buffalo horn and the Atok Tungkuih Nasi Gadang House which is identical to the roof like rice wrap, usually found in coastal areas.


Meanwhile, from the traditional system, Rumah Gadang can be divided into two types. Namely the Gadang House with a flat or flat floor without support poles in the Bodi Caniago traditional system.


And Rumah Gadang with both ends of the floor elevated with support poles in the Koto Piliang traditional system.


1. Tower House


This traditional house building is made of wood with a roof of fibers or zinc and faces north.


There is an additional gonjong at the front as a protective ladder before the entrance to the house.


It is known that Minangkabau culture adheres to a matrilineal system that determines the kinship structure based on the mother's line.


This also affects the construction of the Gadang House. The provisions on the number of rooms depend on the number of women living in it, where every married woman gets one room.


Meanwhile, the older women and children get rooms located near the kitchen. And for young women get a shared room which is at the other end.


The interior of the house is a loose space except for the room which is divided into lanjar and the room which is marked by pillars.


The poles lined up from left to right mark the space while the poles lined up from front to back mark the lanjar. The number of rooms is usually odd, between 3 and 11.


The two buildings in the courtyard are called rangkiang which are usually used as a place to store rice.


While on the left and right wings there is an anjung room as a place for the coronation of the traditional head or bride and groom side by side.


The construction of Rumah Gadang is usually on family-owned land which is passed down from generation to generation to women in the clan.


The process of building the Gadang House begins with the manufacture of four tuo tuo or main pillars.


Logging in the forest is carried out in mutual cooperation, involving many people.


Usually the wood used is straight and old juha tree with a diameter of about 40-60 cm.


This type of tree was chosen because it has the characteristics of a strong and hard wood so that it can last a very long time.


The wood that has been obtained cannot be used immediately, but must first be soaked in the pool for years.


This soaking process is believed to be able to make the logs stronger and harder so they are not eaten by termites.


After it was deemed sufficient, the new logs were lifted and used as tuo milestones. This procession of lifting wood is known as “mambangkik trunk tarandam” or reviving a submerged tree.


Rumah Gadang has a rectangular shape which is divided into two parts, namely the front and the back.


The front is usually filled with carved ornaments with floral motifs, leaves, roots, rectangles or parallelograms. While on the outside the back is usually lined with bamboo splits.


The Rumah Gadang building uses wood for the walls and bamboo for the back.


The wooden planks are arranged vertically and form a frame with distinctive carved ornaments inside.


The entire wall looks full of placement of carved motifs that are adjusted to the location and arrangement of the wooden boards on the wall.


2. Gonjong Ampek Baanjuang


Gonjong Ampek Baanjung is a traditional Padang house that has a unique building form with more than 7 side rooms.


While on the left and right there are additional platforms.


3. Gonjong Anam Traditional House


Gonjong Anam is a Minang traditional house with the architectural style of the Gadang Gajah Maharam building which has been repaired and added with carved ornaments such as a stilt building.

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