Harvest and Post Harvest of Soybean Plants

One of the important factors that can determine productivity is harvesting and post-harvest handling. Things that need to be considered include harvest time and age, drying, seeding, seed maintenance, and storage.



1. Characteristics and Harvest Age

Soybean harvest is done when most of the leaves turn yellow, but not due to pest or disease attack, then the fruit begins to change color from green to brownish yellow and cracks, or the pods look old, the stems are yellowish brown and bare. . A late harvest will be detrimental, because many fruits are old and dry, so that the skin of the fruit is cracked or cracked and the seeds are scattered. In addition, the fruit will fall off because the fruit dries and leaves twigs.

It should be noted that the age of soybeans to be harvested ranges from 75-110 days, depending on the variety and altitude. It should be noted that soybeans that will be used as food ingredients are picked at the age of 75-100 days, while the seeds are picked at the age of 100-110 days, so that the maturation of the seeds is absolutely perfect and evenly distributed. . distributed.

2. How to Harvest

Soybean harvesting is done when it is not raining, so the results can be directly dried in the sun.

- Collection by deletion

Before the plant is removed, the condition of the soil needs to be considered first. On light and sandy soils, the extraction process will be easier. The real interesting way is found by holding the trunk of a tree, hands in a position just below the nag and fruiting branch. Extraction must be done carefully because aged soybeans are very easy to give up when gripped.

- Collection by way

Tools that are usually used for sharp are sharp, so they don't cause images that are too sharp. In addition, with a sharp cutting tool, work can be done quickly and the number of fruit falling due to shuffling can be reduced. Harvesting by increasing soil fertility, because root nodules that store a lot of nitrate compounds are not removed, but are left in the soil. On hard soil, harvesting is difficult, so it will be faster.

3. Harvest Time

Given that the fruit does not ripen at the same time, and to prevent the unripe fruit from being picked, the picking should be done gradually, several times.

4. Production Forecast

Soybean production produced by Indonesian farmers is 600-700 kg/ha on average.

b. Post-harvest

1. Collection and Drying

After the collection is complete, the entire harvest is immediately dried in the sun. Soybeans are collected and then dried on mats, woven bamboo, or on a cement floor for 3 days. Once completely dry and evenly distributed, the soybean pods will break easily so that the seeds are easily removed. So that the soybeans are completely dry, at the time of drying they must be turned over. Reversal is also beneficial because many of the pods are broken and many seeds are coming out of the pods. Meanwhile, seeds that are still wrapped in pods are easy to remove from the pods, as long as the pods are dry enough.

Soybean seeds that will be used as seeds are dried separately. The seeds have actually been selected from healthy plants and harvested themselves, then dried in the sun to dry completely with an air content of 10-15%. Drying the seeds should be done in the morning, from 10:00 to 12:00 noon.

2. Sorting and Classification

There are several ways to separate the seeds from the pea shells. These include hitting the pile of stoves directly with a wood stove or soybeans before beating them into sacks, or threshing them with a rice cutter.

After the seeds are separated, the stove is removed. The separated seeds are then winnowed to separate them from other impurities. The injured and wrinkled seeds are separated. The clean seeds are then dried again until the water content is 9-11%. The dried seeds are put in sacks and marketed or stored. As an estimate from stem and leaf wetness, soybean seed yield is about 18.2%.

3. Storage and packaging

As a food crop, soybeans can be stored for a long time. Simply stored in a dry place in a sack. These soybean sacks are stacked on a wooden pedestal so they don't directly touch the ground or floor. If stored for a long time, then every 2-3 months must be dried again until the water content is around 9-11%.

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